Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which beta cells are destroyed in genetically susceptible persons. This condition is usually diagnosed in children and young people so it is also called as juvenile diabetes age of onset from childhood. (Ignatavicius et al., 2021).
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disorder in which the person initially has insulin resistance that progresses to decreased beta cell secretion of insulin.
Race and ethnicity
Age of onset :
Type 1 diabetes: At any age, significantly below 30 years.
Type 2 diabetes: Onset of diabetes at any age, but mostly above 30 years of age.
Chronic hyperglycemia results from the impaired process in glucose regulation that includes reduced insulin secretion or reduced insulin action, or both. (Ignatavicius et al., 2021).
Clinical manifestations Type 1:-
fatigue and weakness
Type 2 diabetes:
Dry itchy skin
The most important topic that must be taught to a diabetic patient’s health Education’
Health education :
It is necessary to treat and control diabetes. You have to make lifestyle modifications like exercising regularly, taking good healthy food, seeking medical assistance, and taking medications regularly.
Exercise has a significant role in treating diabetes. Exercise affects your blood glucose level. Check your blood sugar level before and after taking food. Maintain good personal hygiene. Avoid unnecessary wounds on your feet because diabetic patients take more time in wound healing.
For Type 1 Diabetes, the pathophysiology is a chronic condition in which the pancreas (beta cells) is unable to produce insulin. The risk factors are autoimmune response and genetics. The age of onset is childhood. The clinical manifestations are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, hyperglycemia, and blurred vision (Ignatavicius et al., 2021).
For Type 2 Diabetes, the pathophysiology is characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. The risk factors are obesity, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The age of onset is adulthood. The clinical manifestations are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, poor wound healing, fatigue, blurred vision, recurrent infection, numbness and tingling of hands and feet, and dry skin (Ignatavicius et al., 2021).
I think the most important topic that must be taught to the diabetic patient is proper diet. Diabetic patients need to be taught that food, specifically carbohydrates, are converted to glucose. Monitoring carbohydrate intake is very important. Having a proper diet is a big factor in diabetes management aside from monitoring the blood sugar.
Ignatavicius, D. D., Workman, M. L., Rebar, C. R., & Heimgartner, N. M. (2021). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Concepts for Interprofessional Collaborative Care (10th ed.). Elsevier.